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From a broader communications perspective, IDS may be part of a more general phenomenon of adaptation to a partner during communication.

First, other cases of speech adjustment to the listener exist. Adults simplify their vocabulary choices when speaking with children who are up to 12 years of age [ ].

Even in normal ADS, new words are highlighted with prosodic cues. In both IDS and ADS, repeated words are shorter, quieter, lower pitched, and less variable in pitch than words the first time they are mentioned, and they are placed in less prominent positions relative to new words in the same utterance [ 5 ].

Second, speakers other than human mothers and caregivers adjust their speech to infants. Four-year-old children modify some of their prosodic characteristics when speaking to infants, in that they speak more slowly, tend to lower their f0, and change their amplitude variability [ ].

The linguistic content of educational children's programs also generally follows the linguistic constraints and adjustments that are evident in adults' CDS [ ].

In a comparison of the mother-infant gestural and vocal interactions of chimpanzees and humans, Falk [ ], suggested that pre-linguistic vocal substrates for motherese evolved as females gave birth to relatively undeveloped neonates and adopted new strategies that entailed maternal quieting, reassuring, and controlling of the behaviors of physically removed infants who were unable to cling to their mothers' bodies.

The characteristic vocal melodies of human mothers' speech to infants might be biologically relevant signals that have been shaped by natural selection [ ], a finding that is integrated in a more general human and non-human communication field.

IDS implies emotion sharing, mother-infant adjustment, synchrony and multimodal communication. Indeed, IDS is part of a multimodal, synchronous communication style used with infants to sustain interactions and highlight messages.

Mothers support their vocal communication with other modalities e. Moreover, children's verbal and gestural productions and vocabulary size may be correlated with maternal gesture production [ , ].

Mothers also use contingency and synchrony both intrapersonal and interpersonal to reinforce dialogues and exchanges.

Pragmatic dimensions of IDS may provide contingent support that assists in language comprehension and acquisition. Thus, IDS appears to be a part of a maternal interactive style that supports the affective and verbal communication systems of the developing infant.

IDS should be regarded as an emotional form of speech. Several studies highlight the impact of emotion on both motherese production and its effects, particularly with regard to prosodic characteristics that are conditioned by vocal emotions [ 22 ].

In general, acoustic analyses of f0 are positively associated with subjective judgments of emotion [ ]. Thus, prosody which is linked with f0 values and contours reveals affective quantity and quality.

Could IDS, music and emotion be linked before birth through prenatal associations between a mother's changing emotional state, concomitant changes in hormone levels in the placental blood and prenatally audible sounds?

Finally, IDS highlights mother-infant adjustments during interactions. Mother-infant contingency and synchrony are crucial for IDS production and prolongation.

In Figure 2 , we summarize the main points that were previously discussed. At the behavioral level, this interactive loop is underpinned by the emotional charge of the affective level and affects, at the cognitive level, attention, learning and the construction of intersubjective tools, such as joint attention and communicative skills.

Regarding this impact of social interaction on natural speech and language learning, Kuhl wondered whether the underlying mechanism could be the increased motivation, the enriched information that social settings provide, or a combination of both factors [ ].

Our systematic review supports this view. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Various aspects of motherese also known as infant-directed speech IDS have been studied for many years.

Funding: The authors have no support or funding to report. Download: PPT. Results 1: General comments Table 1 lists the relevant studies and the number of subjects included according to each domain of interest.

Vallabha - Automatic computed vowels categorization Does IDS prosody help categorization of sounds from the native language?

Curtin 24 Serie of 5 experiments Does lexical stress help language acquisition speech segmentation? Colombo 27 Paired comparisons with manipulated sounds Does F0 modulation in IDS help words recognition in a noisy ambient?

Singh 32 Longitudinal paired comparisons? Newport 12 Longitudinal prospective correlation study Does maternal IDS linguistic properties predict child language acquisition?

Furrow 7 Longitudinal prospective correlation study Does maternal IDS linguistic properties predict child language acquisition?

Hampson 45 Longitudinal prospective study Does maternal IDS linguistic properties predict language acquisition? According to language Specific forms of IDS are evident across various languages, including Western European languages [ 11 , 36 , 37 ], Hebrew [ 38 ], Korean [ 39 ], Mandarin [ 40 , 41 ], Japanese [ 42 ] and even American Sign Language ASL between deaf mothers and their deaf children [ 43 - 45 ].

Do parental individual differences modify motherese quality? Communication of affect and physiological effects Though communication of affect is crucial with regard to communicating with very young infants without linguistic knowledge, few studies have addressed it.

Facilitation of language acquisition 4. Do the linguistic properties of IDS aid in language acquisition, and, if so, how?

Discussion 1: Summary Our review has some limitations. Figure 2. Summary of the motherese interactive loop a and its socio-cognitive implications 2B.

Supporting Information. Annex S1. Rejected papers and reasons for their exclusion. Checklist S1. References 1.

Saxton M What's in a name? Coming to terms with the child's linguistic environment. J Child Lang PubMed: View Article Google Scholar 2.

Am Anthropol View Article Google Scholar 3. Soderstrom M, Morgan JL Twenty-two-month-olds discriminate fluent from disfluent adult-directed speech.

Dev Sci View Article Google Scholar 4. Fisher C, Tokura H The given-new contract in speech to infants. J Mem Lang View Article Google Scholar 6.

Dev Psychol View Article Google Scholar 7. View Article Google Scholar 8. First Lang 3: View Article Google Scholar 9. Fernald A, Simon T Expanded intonation contours in mothers' speech to newborns.

View Article Google Scholar Eur J Disord Commun Jpn J Spec Educ Shute B, Wheldall K Fundamental frequency and temporal modifications in the speech of British fathers to their children.

Educ Psychol Shute B, Wheldall K How do grandmothers speak to their grandchildren? Fundamental frequency and temporal modifications in the speech of British grandmothers to their grandchildren.

Nwokah EE Maidese versus motherese--is the language input of child and adult caregivers similar? Lang Speech 30 3 : Fernald A Intonation and communicative intent in mothers' speech to infants: is the melody the message?

Child Dev Psychol Sci Infant Behav Dev Speech Commun J Speech Lang Hear Res On talking to babies and animals.

Science J Speech Hear Res Fernald A, Mazzie C Prosody and focus in speech to infants and adults. Neurosci Res, 62— Int J Methods Psychiatr Res e6-e J Acoust Soc Am Infant Child Dev J Psycholinguist Res Englund K Voice onset time in infant directed speech over the first six months.

First Lang Lee SA, Davis B, Macneilage P Universal production patterns and ambient language influences in babbling: a cross-linguistic study of Korean- and English-learning infants.

J Child Lang England, Grieser DL, Kuhl K Maternal speech to infants in a tonal language: Support for universal prosodic features in motherese.

Masataka N Motherese in a signed language. Masataka N Perception of motherese in Japanese sign language by 6-month-old hearing infants.

Cognition Kitamura C, Burnham D Pitch and communicative intent in mother's speech: Adjustments for age and sex in the first year.

Infancy 4: Niwano K, Sugai K Intonation contour of Japanese maternal infant-directed speech and infant vocal response.

Amano S, Nakatani T, Kondo T Fundamental frequency of infants' and parents' utterances in longitudinal recordings.

Snow Mother's speech to children learning language. Kitamura C, Thanavishuth C, Burnham D, Luksaneeyanawin S Universality and specificity in infant-directed speech: Pitch modifications as a function of infant age and sex in a tonal and non-tonal language.

Feldman R Parent—infant synchrony and the construction of shared timing; physiological precursors, developmental outcomes, and risk conditions.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry Gleason JB Talking to children: some notes on feed-back. In: F. Talking to Children: Language Input and Acquisition.

Braarud HC, Stormark KM Prosodic modification and vocal adjustments in mothers' speech during face-to-face interaction with their two- to four-month-old infants: A double video study.

Soc Dev Infancy Shimura Y, Yamanoucho I Sound spectrographic studies on the relation between motherese and pleasure vocalization in early infancy.

Acta Paediatr Jpn McRoberts GW, Best CT Accommodation in mean f0 during mother-infant and father-infant vocal interactions: a longitudinal case study.

Reissland N, Stephenson T Turn-taking in early vocal interaction: a comparison of premature and term infants' vocal interaction with their mothers.

Child Care Health Dev Niwano K, Sugai K Maternal accommodation in infant-directed speech during mother's and twin-infants' vocal interactions.

Psychol Rep Reissland N, Shepherd J, Cowie L The melody of surprise: maternal surprise vocalizations during play with her infant.

Lederberg AR Interaction between deaf preschoolers and unfamiliar hearing adults. Fidler DJ Parental vocalizations and perceived immaturity in down syndrome.

Am J Ment Retard Q: J of Dev Psych Kondaurova MV, Bergeson TR The effects of age and infant hearing status on maternal use of prosodic cues for clause boundaries in speech.

J Speech. Lang Hear Res. Ikeda Y, Masataka N A variable that may affect individual differences in the child-directed speech of Japanese women. Jpn Psychol Res Hoff E, Tian C Socioeconomic status and cultural influences on language.

J Commun Disord Hoff-Ginsberg E Mother-child conversation in different social classes and communicative settings. Rowe ML Child-directed speech: relation to socioeconomic status, knowledge of child development and child vocabulary skill.

NeuroImage Biol Psychiatry Bettes BA Maternal depression and motherese: temporal and intonational features. Herrera E, Reissland N, Shepherd J Maternal touch and maternal child-directed speech: effects of depressed mood in the postnatal period.

J Affect Disord Infancy 2: Psychiatry Res McLeod PJ What studies of communication with infants ask us about psychology: Baby-talk and other speech registers.

Fernald A Approval and disapproval: Infant responsiveness to vocal affect in familiar and unfamiliar languages. Elena S, Merideth G Infants infer intentions from prosody.

Cogn Dev Brain Cogn Monnot M Function of infant-directed speech. Hum Nat Fernald A, Kuhl P Acoustic determinants of infant preference for motherese speech.

Santarcangelo S, Dyer K Prosodic aspects of motherese: effects on gaze and responsiveness in developmentally disabled children.

J Exp Child Psychol Dev Psychol, 19— Werker JF, McLeod PJ Infant preference for both male and female infant-directed talk: a developmental study of attentional and affective responsiveness.

Can J Psychol Cooper RP The effect of prosody on young infants' speech perception. Advances Infancy Res 8: J Reprod Infant Psychol Res Hum Dev 3: Niwano K, Sugai K Acoustic determinants eliciting Japanese infants' vocal response to maternal speech.

Kitamura C, Lam C Age-specific preferences for infant-directed affective intent. Dev Psychobiol Appl Neuropsychol 9: Cooper RP, Aslin RN Developmental differences in infant attention to the spectral properties of infant-directed speech.

Infancy 3: Musicae Sci Spec Issue: Senju A, Csibra G Gaze following in human infants depends on communicative signals. Curr Biol Kaplan PS, Bachorowski JA, Zarlengo-Strouse P Child-directed speech produced by mothers with symptoms of depression fails to promote associative learning in 4-month-old infants.

Infant Behav Dev. Role of Father Involvement. Kaplan PS, Sliter JK, Burgess AP Infant-directed speech produced by fathers with symptoms of depression: effects on infant associative learning in a conditioned-attention paradigm.

Karzon RG Discrimination of polysyllabic sequences by one- to four-month-old infants. Percept Psychophys Trainor LJ, Desjardins RN Pitch characteristics of infant-directed speech affect infants' ability to discriminate vowels.

Psychon Bull Rev 9: Infancy 7: D'Odorico L, Jacob V Prosodic and lexical aspects of maternal linguistic input to late-talking toddlers.

Int J Lang Commun Disord Morgan JL Prosody and the roots of parsing. Lang Cogn Processes How natural variability supports recognition. Cogn Psychol Singh L Influences of high and low variability on infant word recognition.

Kirchhoff K, Schimmel S Statistical properties of infant-directed versus adult-directed speech: insights from speech recognition. In: CSaC, Ferguson.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. J Child Lang 6: Scarborough H, Wyckoff J Mother, I'd still rather do it myself: some further non-effects of 'motherese'.

Hampson J, Nelson K The relation of maternal language to variation in rate and style of language acquisition.

Fernald A, Hurtado N Names in frames: infants interpret words in sentence frames faster than words in isolation. Dev Sci 9: FF Golinkoff RM, Alioto A Infant-directed speech facilitates lexical learning in adults hearing Chinese: implications for language acquisition.

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